Contact information:

Positions held

What distinguishes Pharmikos from other consultants?

- Data interpretation. In our experience, other consultants and experts are likely to read the interpretation of data presented in graphs and tables and accept it at face value. We are much more likely to perform statistical analyses to determine if conclusions written are indeed supported by the data. We are also more likely to look into the methods used to determine if they are sound.

- Documentation. When challenged on an opinion, you will not find us replying with words to the effect of "I've been a pharmacologist for 25 years, so my opinions must be correct." We use the peer-reviewed scientific literature to document our opinions. Moreover, when a particular position is correct, there normally are multiple, independent bases which support the position; some arguments are more appealing and compelling to individuals than others.

- Examining assumptions. When a position is wrong, more often than not it is because the assumptions were flawed, rather than the deductive steps.

These attributes were hard earned from working in the tough and competitive area of drug discovery and winning academic grants, as a scientist working at the bench. Having some success with development compounds resulted in a degree of exigence that they be developed properly, in toxicology and clinical trials. Serving as Principal Investigator in clinical trials added further experience and insight into pharmaceutical development.


B.Sc. with Honors in Biology - Caltech
Ph.D. in Neuroscience - University of British Columbia
Postdoctoral training - Synthelabo, Paris, France
Postdoctoral training - The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Positions held

Project Leader, Ciba-Geigy
Adjunct Assistant Professor, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Project Leader, Servier Pharmaceutical, Paris
Associate Professor Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Hahnemann University School of Medicine, Philadelphia
CEO, LifeSpan Biotechnology, Devon, Pennsylvania
Director, Retinal Research, Layton BioScience
CEO, GB Therapeutics, Kingston, Ontario
Adjunct Associate Professor, Queens University
Founder and President, DrugIntel, Strafford, Pennsylvania
Principal, Pharmikos Inc, Wayne, Pennsylvania


Mishra P, Lehmann J, and Nair S. Microdialysis probes and methods of use, US Patent 5441481, 08/15/1995.

Selected publications

Lehmann, J. and Fibiger, H.C. (1978) Acetylcholinesterase in the substantia nigra and caudate-putamen of the rat: properties and localization in dopaminergic neurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 30:615-624.

Nagy, J.I., Carter, D.A., Lehmann, J. and Fibiger, H.C. (1978) Evidence for a GABA-containing projection from the entopeduncular nucleus to the lateral habenula in the rat. Brain Research 149:546-551.

Nagy, J.I., Vincent, S.R., Lehmann, J., Fibiger, H.C. and McGeer, E.G. (1978) The use of kainic acid in the localization of enzymes in the substantia nigra. Brain Research 149:431-441.

Sanberg, P.R., Lehmann, J. and Fibiger, H.C. (1978) Impaired learning and memory after kainic acid lesions of the striatum: a behavioural model of Huntington's disease. Brain Research 149:546-551.

Lehmann, J. and Fibiger, H.C. (1979) Acetylcholinesterase and the cholinergic neuron. Life Sciences 5:1161-1174.

Lehmann, J., Fibiger, H.C. and Butcher, L.L. (1979) The localization of acetylcholinesterase in the corpus striatum and substantia nigra of the rat following kainic acid lesions of the corpus striatum: a biochemical and histochemical study. Neuroscience 4:217-225.

Sanberg, P.R., Lehmann, J. and Fibiger, H.C. (1979) Sedative effects of apomorphine and an animal model of Huntington's disease. Archives of Neurology 36:349-350.

Lehmann, J., Nagy, J.I., Atmadja, S. and Fibiger, H.C. (1980) The nucleus basalis magnocellularis: the origin of a cholinergic projection to the neocortex of the rat. Neuroscience 5:1161-1174.

Vincent, S.R., Lehmann, J. and McGeer, E.G. (1980) The localization of GABA-transaminase in the striato-nigral system. Life Sciences 27:595-601.

Arbilla, S., Langer, S.Z. and Lehmann, J. (1981) Dopamine autoreceptors inhibiting [3H]dopamine release in the caudate nucleus of the cat: Evidence for a role of endogenously released dopamine. British Journal of Pharmacology 74:226P.

Fibiger, H.C. and Lehmann, J. Anatomical organization of some cholinergic systems in the mammalian forebrain. In: Cholinergic Mechanisms, edited by Pepeu, G. and Ladinsky, H. New York: Plenum Press, 1981, p. 663-672.

Lehmann, J. and Langer, S.Z. (1981) Phenoxybenzamine irreversibly blocks dopamine autoreceptors: Implications for multiple dopamine receptor hypotheses. European Journal of Pharmacology 75:247-254.

Lehmann, J., Arbilla, S. and Langer, S.Z. (1981) Dopamine receptor mediated inhibition by pergolide of electrically-evoked [3H]dopamine release from striatal slices of cat and rat: slight effect of ascorbate. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 317:31-35.

Lehmann, J. and Scatton, B. (1982) Characterization of the excitatory amino acid receptor mediated release of [3H]acetylcholine from striatal slices of the rat. Brain Research 252:77-89.

Lehmann, J. and Langer, S.Z. (1982) Dopamine autoreceptors differ pharmacologically from postsynaptic dopamine receptors: effects of (-)N(2-choloroethyl)-norapomorphine. European Journal of Pharmacology 77:85-86.

Lehmann, J. and Langer, S.Z. The pharmacological distinction between central pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors: Implications for the pathology and therapy of schizophrenia. In: Advances in Dopamine Research, edited by Kohsaka, M., Shohmori, Y., Tsukuda, Y. and Woodruff, G.N. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982, p. 25-39.

Scatton, B. and Lehmann, J. (1982) N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type receptors mediate striatal [3H]acetylcholine release evoked by excitatory amino acids. Nature 297:422-424.

Lehmann, J. and Langer, S.Z. (1983) The striatal cholinergic interneuron: synaptic target of dopaminergic terminals?. Neuroscience 10:1105-1120.

Lehmann, J., Schaeffer, P., Ferkany, J.W. and Coyle, J.T. (1983) Quinolinic acid evokes [3H]acetylcholine release in striatal slices: mediation by NMDA-type excitatory amino acid receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 96:111-115.

Lehmann, J., Lee, C.R. and Langer, S.Z. (1983) Dopamine receptors modulating [3H]acetylcholine release in slices of the cat caudate: effects of (-)N(2-chloroethyl)-norapomorphine. European Journal of Pharmacology 90:393-400.

Lehmann, J., Smith, R.V. and Langer, S.Z. (1983) Stereoisomers of apomorphine differ in affinity and intrinsic activity at presynaptic dopamine receptors modulating activity [3H]dopamine and [3H]acetylcholine release in slices of cat caudate. European Journal of Pharmacology 88:81-88.

Lehmann, J., Briley, M. and Langer, S.Z. (1983) Characterization of dopamine autoreceptor and [3H]spiperone binding sites in vitro with classical and novel dopamine receptor agonists. European Journal of Pharmacology 88:11-26.

Lehmann, J., Struble, R.G., Antuono, P.G., Coyle, J.T., Cork, L.C. and Price, D.L. (1984) Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex. Brain Research 322:361-364.

Schwartz, R.D., Lehmann, J. and Kellar, K.J. (1984) Presynaptic nicotinic cholinergic receptors labeled by [3H]acetylcholine on catecholamine and serotonin axons in brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 42:1495-1498.

Lehmann, J., Ferkany, J.W., Schaeffer, P. and Coyle, J.T. (1985) Dissociation between the excitatory and "excitotoxic" effects of quinolinic acid analogs on the striatal cholinergic interneuron. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 232:873-882.

Price, D.L., Cork, L.C., Struble, R.G., et al. Neuropathological, neurochemical, and behavioral studies of the aging nonhuman primate. In: Behavior and pathology of aging in rhesus monkeys, edited by New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1985, p. 113-135.

Struble, R.G., Lehmann, J., Mitchell, S.J., et al. Cortical cholinergic innervation: distribution and source in monkeys. In: Dynamics of cholinergic function, edited by Hanin, I. New York: Plenum Press, 1985,

Clark, A.W., White, C.L., Manz, H.J., Parhad, I.M., Curry, B., Whitehouse, P.J., Lehmann, J. and Coyle, J.T. (1986) Primary degenerative dementia without Alzheimer pathology. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 13:462-470.

Clark, A.W., Manz, H.J., White, C.L., Lehmann, J., Miller, D. and Coyle, J.T. (1986) Cortical degeneration with swollen chromalytic neurons: its relationship to Pick's disease. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 45:268-284.

Lehmann, J., McPherson, S.E., Wood, P.L. and Cheney, D.L. (1986) PCP analogs - site of action at NMDA-type receptor associated ion channels?. Clinical Neuropharmacology 9:497-499.

Loo, P., Braunwalder, A., Lehmann, J. and Williams, M. (1986) Radioligand binding to central phencyclidine recognition sites is dependent on excitatory amino acid receptor agonists. European Journal of Pharmacology 123:467-468.

Struble, R.G., Lehmann, J., Mitchell, S.J., McKinney, M., Price, D.L., Coyle, J.T. and DeLong, M.R. (1986) Basal forebrain neurons provide major cholinergic innervation of primate neocortex. Neuroscience Letters 66:215-220.

ffrench-Mullen, J.M.H., Lehmann, J., Bohacek, R. and Fisher, R.S. (1987) Tiletamine is a potent inhibitor of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced depolarizations in rat hippocampus and striatum. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 243:915-920.

Lehmann, J., Schneider, J., McPherson, S., Murphy, D.E., Bernard, P., Tsai, C., Bennett, D.A., Pastor, G., Steel, D.J., Boehm, C., Cheney, D.L., Liebman, J.M., Williams, M. and Wood, P.L. (1987) CPP, a selective NMDA-type receptor antagonist: characterization in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 240:737-746.

Lehmann, J., Schneider, J. and Williams, M. (1987) Excitatory amino acids and mammalian CNS function. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry 22:31-40.

Lehmann, J., Loo, P., McPherson, S., et al. NMDA- and PCP-type receptor interactions. In: Excitatory amino acid transmission, edited by Hicks, T.P., McLennan, H. and Lodge, D. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1987, p. 91-98.

Loo, P.A., Braunwalder, A.F., Lehmann, J., Williams, M. and Sills, M.A. (1987) Interaction of L-glutamate and magnesium with phencyclidine recognition sites in rat brain: evidence for multiple affinity states of the phencyclidine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. Molecular Pharmacology 32:820-830.

Murphy, D.E., Schneider, J., Boehm, C., Lehmann, J. and Williams, M. (1987) Binding of [3H]3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid to rat brain membranes: a selective high-affinity ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 240:778-784.

Tsai, C., Steel, D.J., McPherson, S., Taylor, C.A., Wood, P.L. and Lehmann, J. PK 26124 is not a competitive antagonist at NMDA-type receptors. In: Excitatory amino acid transmission, edited by Hicks, T.P., McLennan, H. and Lodge, D. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1987, p. 79-82.

Tsai, C. and Lehmann, J. Glutamate-sensitive alpha-ketoglutarate uptake into nerve terminals: sodium dependence. In: Excitatory amino acid transmission, edited by Hicks, T.P., McLennan, H. and Lodge, D. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1987, p. 161-164.

Wood, P.L., Steel, D., McPherson, S.E., Cheney, D.L. and Lehmann, J. (1987) Antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate evoked increases in cerebellar cGMP and striatal ACh release by phencyclidine receptor agonists: evidence for possible allosteric coupling of NMDA and PCP receptors. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 65:1923-1927.

Boast, C.A., Gerhardt, S.C., Pastor, G., Lehmann, J., Etienne, P.E. and Liebman, J.M. (1988) The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists CGS 19755 and CPP reduce ischemic brain damage in gerbils. Brain Research 442:345-348.

Cavalheiro, E., Lehmann, J., Turski, L. and Eds. Frontiers in excitatory amino acid research, New York:Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1988.

Klockgether, T., Turski, L., Schwarz, M., Sontag, K.-H. and Lehmann, J. (1988) Paradoxical convulsant action of a novel non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, tiletamine. Brain Research 461:343-348.

Langer, S.Z. and Lehmann, J. Presynaptic receptors on catecholamine neurones. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 90/I, edited by Trendelenburg, U. and Weiner, N. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1988, p. 419-507.

Lehmann, J., Sills, M.A., Tsai, C., Loo, P.S. and Bennett, D.A. Dextromethorphan modulates the NMDA-type receptor associated ion channel by binding to its closed state. In: Frontiers in excitatory amino acid research, edited by Cavalheiro, E., Lehmann, J. and Turski, L. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1988, p. 571-578.

Lehmann, J., Chapman, A.G., Meldrum, B.S., Hutchison, A., Tsai, C. and Wood, P.L. (1988) CGS 19755 is a potent and competitive antagonist at NMDA-type receptors in vitro and in vivo. European Journal of Pharmacology 154:89-93.

Lehmann, J., Tsai, C. and Wood, P.L. (1988) Homocysteic acid as a putative excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter. I. Postsynaptic characteristics at NMDA-type receptors. Journal of Neurochemistry 51:1765-1770.

Lehmann, J. and Wood, P.L. NMDA- and PCP-type receptor interactions. In: Sigma and phencyclidine-like compounds as molecular probes in biology, edited by Domino, E.F. and Kamenka, J.-M. Ann Arbor: NPP Books, 1988, p. 251-258.

Lehmann, J., Hutchison, A.J., McPherson, S.E., Mondadori, C., Schmutz, M., Sinton, C.M., Tsai, C., Murphy, D.E., Steel, D.J., Williams, M., Cheney, D.L. and Wood, P.L. (1988) CGS 19755, a selective and competitive NMDA-type excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 246:65-75.

Taylor, C.A., Tsai, C. and Lehmann, J. (1988) Voltage-sensitive sodium channels: differential effects of local anesthetics and anticonvulsant drugs. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 244:666-673.

Taylor, C.A., Tsai, C. and Lehmann, J. (1988) Glycine-evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine from rat striatal slices is independent of the NMDA receptor. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 337:552-555.

Tsai, C., Schneider, J.A. and Lehmann, J. (1988) trans-2-Carboxy-3-pyrrolidine acetic acid (CPAA), a novel agonist at NMDA-type receptors. Neuroscience Letters 92:298-302.

Cheney, D.L., Lehmann, J., Cosi, C. and Wood, P.L. Determination of acetylcholine dynamics. In: Neuromethods, volume 12: Drugs as tools in neurotransmitter research, edited by Boulton, A.B., Baker, G.B. and Juorio, A.V. Clifton, NJ: The Humana Press, 1989, p. 443-495.

Lehmann, J. (1989) Legal laboratory practice. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 10:425-426.

Lehmann, J., Koenig, E. and Vitou, P. (1989) The imidazoline-preferring receptor. Life Sciences 45:1609-1615.

Lehmann, J. (1989) The NMDA Receptor. Drugs of the Future 14:1059-1071.

Rao, T.S., Kim, H.S., Lehmann, J., Martin, L.L. and Wood, P.L. (1989) Differential effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine on mescocortical and mesostriatal dopamine release in vivo. Life Sciences 45:1065-1072.

Lehmann, J. (1990) Antihypertensive pharmacotherapy: modern mechanisms. Drugs of Today 26:83-90.

Lehmann, J. (1990) Brave new biosensors. Bio/Technology 8:729-731.

Lehmann, J., Randle, J.C.R. and Reynolds, I.J. (1990) Excitatory amino acid receptors: NMDA modulatory sites, kainate cloned and a new role in AIDS. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 11:1-3.

Lehmann, J. (1990) Neuropeptide Y: an overview. Drug Development Research 19:329-351.

Lehmann, J., Colpaert, F. and Canton, H. (1991) Glutamate and glycine co-activate while polyamines merely modulate the NMDA receptor complex. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 15:183-190.

Lehmann, J., Etienne, P.E., Cheney, D.L. and Wood, P.L. (1991) NMDA receptors and their channels. In: Neurotransmitters and epilepsy, edited by Fisher, R.S. and Coyle, J.T. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 147-165.

Rao, T.S., Kim, H.S., Lehmann, J., Martin, L.L. and Wood, P.L. (1990) Selective activation of dopaminergic pathways in the mesocortex by compounds that act at phencyclidine (PCP) binding site: tentative evidence for PCP recognition sites not coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Neuropharmacology 29:225-230.

Rao, T.S., Kim, H.S., Lehmann, J., Martin, L.L. and Wood, P.L. (1990) Selective activation of dopaminergic pathways in the mesocortex by compounds that act at phencyclidine (PCP) binding site: tentative evidence for PCP recognition sites not coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Neuropharmacology 29:225-230.

Lehmann, J. (1991) Sigma receptors, schizophrenia and cytochrome P-450. Drug News Persp 4: 208-210.

Taylor, C.A. and Lehmann, J. (1991) Muscarinic receptors on dopaminergic terminals modulating dopamine release. In Presynaptic regulation of neurotransmitter release, ed. by J. Feigenbaum and M. Hanani, Freund Publishing House, London, pp. 651-666.

Mathis,C., Lehmann, J. and Ungerer,A. (1992) The selective protein kinase C inhibitor, NPC 15437, induces specific deficits in memory retention in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacology,220:107-110.

Lehmann, J., DeSouza, E.B., Culp, S., and Zaczek, R. (1992) Regional distribution to recovery of 5HT levels after administration of the "atrophins" MDMA and D,L-Fenfluramine: stereospecificity and comparison with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 648:291-295.

Lehmann,J., Robine, V., and Valentino, R. (1992) Cortical norepinephrine release elicited in situ by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation: a microdialysis study. Brain Res. 599:171-174.

Nair, S., Wolfson, E., Lighthall, J., Giannakopoulis, G., Robine, V, Williams, M. and Lehmann, J. (1992) Contusional head trauma model in rats: I. Uric acid increases reflecting peroxidative injury. J Neurotrauma 9: 394.

Williams J.M., Zigler, L., Nair, S., Wolfson, E., Wahhab, S., Lighthall, J., Mathis, C., Weiss, B., and Lehmann, J. (1992) Contusional head trauma model in rats: II. Time course of cognitive deficit and pharmacological effects. J Neurotrauma 9: 403.

Lehmann, J.C., Procureur,D., and Wood,P.L. (1993) 7-Chlorokynurenate prevents NMDA-induced and kainate-induced striatal lesions. Brain Res., 620:1-6.

Nair, S., Lehmann, J. , Williams, J.M. and Weiss, B. (1993) Traumatic brain injury: an emerging therapeutic indication. Drug News & Perspective 6:600-603.

Lehmann,J.C., and Robine, V. (1993) Noreprinephrine release elicited in cortex via presynaptic NMDA receptors: role of endogenous amino acids. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol., submitted, 1993.

Lehmann, J.C., Kapkov, D. and Shank, R.P. (1993) Kinetics of 2-oxoglutarate uptake by synaptosomes from bovine and rat retina and cerebral cortex and regulation by glutamate and glutamine. Dev. Neurosci. 15:330-335.

Vender JR, Nair SN, Lehmann JC (1995) Pharmacotherapeutic potential for compounds acting at NMDA receptors: Update 1995. Exp Opin Invest Drugs 4: 475-485.

Hamelin SM and Lehmann JC (1995) Effects of putative cognition enhancers on the NMDA receptor by [3H]MK801 binding, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 281: R11-R13.

Lehmann JC, Jones TR, Mishra PK, Hamelin S, Nair SN (1996) A novel microdialysis probe designed for clinical use: potential analytical and therapeutic applications. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl] 67:66-69

Miller RD, Monsul NT, Vender JR, Lehmann JC (1995) NMDA- and endothelin-1-induced increases in blood-brain barrier permeability quantitated with Lucifer yellow. J Neurol Sci 136:37-40.

Tayag EC, Jeng AY, Savage P, Lehmann JC (1996) Rat striatum contains pure opulation of ETB receptors.Eur. J. Pharmacol. 300:261-265.

Tayag EC, Nair SN, Wahhab S, Katsetos CD, Lighthall J.W., Lehmann JC, (1996) Cerebral uric acid increases following experimental traumatic brain injury in rat. Brain Res 733:287-291.

Konobu T, Sessler F, Luo L. and Lehmann JC. (1998) The hNT human neuronal cell line survives and migrates into rat retina. Cell Transplantation 7:549-558.

Sluck JM, Lin RCS, Katolik LI, Jeng AY, and Lehmann JC (1999) Endothelin converting enzyme-1-, endothelin-1-, and endothelin-3-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain Neuroscience 91:1483-1497.

Lehmann J. (2003) Toxicogenomics takes center stage. Drug News Perspect. 16:183-186

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